CCSMR related research began at the beginning of FY15. Some of the research being conducted under CCSMR is related to research that originated with tasks under the Consolidated Sequestration Research Project (CSRP) which wrapped up at the end of FY15. Each year since FY15, the CCSMR tasks have changed and evolved. Our current focus is as follows (last updated Dec 2021):
The Core Carbon Storage and Monitoring Research Program (CCSMR) aims to advance emergent monitoring technologies that can be used in commercial carbon storage projects. Our Targeted R&D portfolio for FY2021 remains focused on advancing monitoring technologies considered essential for enabling carbon storage but require further development in order to meet performance and cost goals to support multi-decadal reservoir surveillance. Much of our progress to date has relied on using highly leveraged international collaborations, where LBNL can apply emergent technologies in field monitoring to help accelerate the commercialization of carbon sequestration. The monitoring technologies we are focused on include permanent seismic imaging using surface orbital vibrators and distributed acoustic sensing (SOV-DAS), advancement of joint EM-seismic methods, optical technology for monitoring induced seismicity at depth, and investigating fault leakage mechanics and long-term cap-rock seal capabilities. Current international research partners include Carbon Management Canada’s Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI, Canada), CO2CRC’s Otway Project (Australia), Avalon Sciences (UK), and SINTEF’s aCQurate project (Norway). In each of our tasks we address a technology that is initially considered at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3-4 and we aim to advance it to the TRL of 4-5.
CCSMR Program Tasks:
Second Generation SOV-DAS
Executive Summary: We have completed the installation of seven SOVs at the Otway Stage 3 project in March 2020. The SOV/DAS network on site has the objective to acquire continuous seismic data for real-time monitoring before, during and after the injection of the CO2. The newly installed SOVs have an updated design with 360 bolts which allow for 10-degree rotation. We tested all new SOV on site, which showed the successful installation and operation of the sources. All nine SOVs are up and running, with DAS continuous data being acquired in CRC3, CRC4, CRC5, CRC6 and CRC7 wells. Automated diagnosis of the SOV system daily operation are sent via email for quality control. The injection of 15kt of supercritical CO2 has been completed early 2021.
Background: The capability for SOV-DAS to be used for seismic imaging has been explored by initial trials at two field laboratories, the CO2CRC Otway Project site and the ADM IMS project. While these initial trials allowed us to test the basic concept, there were many lessons learned, both in the design and operation of hardware and the collection and processing of data. We have identified several areas required to advance the maturity level of the technology, which we plan to address during the Otway Stage 3 project. The Otway Project Stage 3 plans to incorporate SOV-DAS technology using a total of 9 SOV source points distributed throughout the monitoring field and an extensive network of DAS cable installed using horizontal directional drilling (HDD). Preliminary testing during FY17 showed that high frequency motors, even with lower force can improve seismic imaging acquisition. We plan to install both 10 Ton-force motors that can operate up to 80 Hz along with 4 Ton-force motors that operate up to 160 Hz and explore ways to acquire and optimize data collection from those two collocated sources. We also learned that there needs to be greater understanding in what constitutes an optimal source signature for data deconvolution. Further deployments of the DAS-SOV technology will allow us to improve the understanding on how to make a field-laboratory scale system. The Otway Stage 3 SOV-DAS network will be used to monitor an injection of approximately 15,000 T CO2-rich gas supplied by the nearby Buttress Well.
Joint EM and Seismic Monitoring of Leakage Pathways
Executive Summary: As significant an effort was not applied to Task 3 as had been applied in past quarters as we were reserving funds for the crosswell seismic and EM data acquisition campaign at the CaMI FRS site that is planned for the early December 2021 to late January 2022 time frame.
Crosswell Seismic System Modifications and Field Testing:
A new switch was added within the ‘Bread Van’ logging truck that we will be using to collect crosswell seismic and EM data at the CaMI site. The switch eliminates high voltage power exposure within the Bread Van, and will be inspected for safety by LBL’s electrical safety specialist early in Q1 FY22. Approval will greatly simply field work approval processes at LBNL.
Preparing for December 2021-January2022 Field Campaign:
The US-Canadian border was opened to non-essential travel in August of 2021 and the DOE is now allowing some travel outside of the US for field work that pertains to existing DOE projects. Thus a significant portion of the time and financial resources spent by Task 3 participants this quarter involved preparing the various documentation required to obtain both LBNL and DOE permission to travel to Canada to acquire a post CO2 injection crosswell seismic and EM data set.
EM-Seismic Joint Inversion:
During this quarter, we continued working with our external partner, the aCQurate Consortium based within the SINTEF research organization of Norway to provide the first true joint inversion results of the CaMI baseline crosswell seismic and EM data. The aCQurate researchers identified an error in their joint inversion algorithm, corrected it, and now have produced a joint inversion image of the Task 3 CaMI baseline crosswell seismic and EM data collected in 2017 by simultaneously using both structural and petrophysical constraints. In addition, a new multi-physics constrained inversion workflow was developed and tested at LBNL using a synthetic resistivity model constructed based on the CaMI FRS resistivity structure. The method was demonstrated to work well for electrically conductive anomalies but not for electrically resistive targets. The disappointing results for a resistor are due to a lack of sensitivity in the magnetic field crosswell measurement configuration for the frequency employed in the data acquisition.
Optical Monitoring Technology for Deep CO2 Injection
Executive Summary: This quarter we continued our investigations of the field data recorded during our deep-borehole test of our HS-VOS sensor system, operated via remote collaboration with the Avalon Sciences field team, at their Rosemanowes granite quarry borehole test site in Penryn, UK. Under direction from LBNL, the Avalon Sciences field crew deployed our HS-VOS array on hybrid optical wireline to a depth of 2 km and recorded seismic data using passive seismic and active sources (vibroseis and airgun). We reported on our field deployment results last quarter and we anticipate that our initial analysis of the data will be completed by the end of next quarter. Due to the extensive delays resulting from COVID-19 restrictions during the last 15 months, our planned two-month deployment of the final design of the HS-VOS array into a deep CO2 monitoring well is currently TBD in FY21-22. In collaboration with the Illinois State Geological Survey, we have developed a proposal for field seismic measurements using our HS-VOS system in a deep borehole at one of the Illinois Storage Corridor projects.
Background: The focus of this task is to analyze the performance of a wide-bandwidth high-sensitivity hybrid optical sensor array for deployment in a deep CO2 reservoir at or near basement depth (up to 3km), toward the goal of capturing the full dynamic range and bandwidth of induced seismicity (IS) and improving the IS risk assessment for both hazard mitigation and deep reservoir management. Improved sensors would allow data acquisition of smaller seismic events, gaining another order of magnitude of range and possibly higher resolution on fracture creation events to contribute toward improved hazard assessment.
For this task we are testing a hybrid three-level array of wide-bandwidth, high-sensitivity vector optical sensors (HS-VOS) mounted in 3C sondes deployed on a distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) fiber wireline cable and connected to an integrated 9-laser interrogator and demodulator system. While previous tests of the HS-VOS system indicate that the optical sensors are capable of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over conventional geophone sensors in controlled environments, full field tests of the array at depth with active and passive sources are required to evaluate sensor performance and suitability.
Originally planned for deployment in 2020, delays over the last 18 months resulting from COVID-19 restrictions meant that our HS-VOS testing at Avalon Sciences’ Rosemanowes borehole test site in Penryn, UK, was delayed until Q2-FY21. The deep-borehole test at 2 km is now complete. Following our analysis of the results from this field test and application of our lessons learned, we plan to deploy the HS-VOS array for a period of up to 4-6 weeks at or near basement depth in a CO2 monitoring well during active injection to monitor for induced seismicity and detailed imaging of the vicinity of the borehole.
Accomplishments during the last year include:
- Redesigning the inline optical reference sensor for improving the noise floor for deep deployments. Matched-frequency laser return signals from the downhole reference sensor can be subtracted from the return signals of individual sensors to increase signal-to-noise.
- Inserting two loopbacks of DAS fiber in the top sonde for DAS recording to the surface. Events recorded on the discrete optical sensors can be used as template events for the distributed fiber to the surface, recorded on a separate DAS interrogator.
- Redeveloping system diagnostics and streamlining the sensor-tuning process. Amplitude and phase timing for each individual sensor are tuned against the fiber lead-in length and clock timing for optimal sensor response.
Field test of the HS-VOS array in a 2km deep borehole in a controlled environment with active and passive sources.
Investigation of CarbonSAFE Sites for Future LBNL Deployments
Executive Summary: The objective of this task is to prepare for proposed CCSMR portfolio adjustments that would seek to integrate continued international collaboration with a new focus on large-scale CarbonSAFE projects. LBNL is well positioned to develop and demonstrate new monitoring technologies relevant to the advancing commercial-scale application of CCUS. These technologies may provide an addition to existing monitoring plans at proposed large-scale CO2 sequestration sites (such as the CarbonSAFE sites), and they can be compared with industry standards and/or other technologies included in demonstration plans.
With special thanks to some of our sponsors, partners and collaborators
CCSMR Tasks have evolved over the years… here are some tasks from previous years:
- The Australian CO2CRC Otway Project
- Aquistore Collaboration
- Carbon Management Canada Field Research Station Collaboration
- Optimization framework for improved CO2 injectivity, storage permanence, monitoring, and utilization
- Mont Terri Project
- Cascadia Project – Discrete Fiber Optic Borehole Accelerometers
- US-Japan CCS Collaboration on Fibre-Optic Technology
- Fault-Leakage and Security
- Integrated Plume Monitoring using Joint EM-Seismic and Strain Sensing
- Monitoring Technology for Deep CO2 Injection
Prior to CCSMR
CCSMR related research began at the beginning of FY15. Some of the research being conducted under CCSMR is related to research that originated with tasks under the Consolidated Sequestration Research Project (CSRP) which wrapped up at the end of FY15.