The GEO-SEQ Project had two primary goals:
- To develop ways to improve predictions of injectivity and capacity of saline formations and depleted gas reservoirs, and
- To develop and test innovative high-resolution methods for monitoring CO2 in the subsurface.
The GEO-SEQ project leveraged scientific understanding and technology development from three highly visible ongoing world-class (Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF)-recognized) geologic CO2 storage projects through leadership and collaboration in the scientific and engineering objectives.
The GEO-SEQ Project had four primary subtasks:
- Fundamental Process and Response Studies
This task had grown out of previous work to support field-scale investigation at pilot projects (InSalah, Otway, and Frio). Our work over the last several years revealed that integrating field measurements with numerical reservoir modeling requires better understanding of certain key fundamental processes (petrophysics and geochemical transport) that comes from supporting laboratory measurements. Additionally, the integration of laboratory and field measurements needed improvement and support. Recognizing these needs, we focused a GEO-SEQ task in this critical area.
The Fundamental Process and Response Studies included laboratory measurement of petrophysical response (e.g., seismic velocity as a function of partial CO2 saturation at in-situ conditions) and geochemical transport processes (e.g., measurement of Henry’s coefficients at in-situ conditions) to allow improved analysis of field studies such as seismic monitoring and tracer breakthrough analysis. We also planned to work on improving integration of reservoir models (TOUGH2) with field monitoring data and to apply support to development of key monitoring technologies (initially targeting the CASSM technique). This work leveraged LBNL activites in other programs which provided design validation and testing opportunities.
GEO-SEQ also included application of the Certification Framework (CF) risk assessment approach to Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Phase III projects and others as opportunities arose.
- Otway Project
This task’s purpose was to deploy & evaluate MMV & simulation technologies at the Otway Basin Demonstration Site in Australia. The GEO-SEQ objective in participating in the Otway Project was to leverage the investment of Australia’s CO2CRC research program in a world-class field test of sequestration, first as a participant in the Otway Stage 1 depleted gas storage test and then in the Otway Stage 2 injection in a saline field.
- In Salah Industrial-Scale CO2 Storage Project
The GEO-SEQ objectives of the research related to the In Salah Industrial-Scale CO2 Storage Project were (1) to assess the effectiveness of CO2 storage in low-permeability formations using long-reach horizontal injection wells, and (2) to investigate monitoring techniques to evaluate the performance of a high pressure CO2-injection operation. The InSalah CO2 Joint Industry Partnership (JIP) begun a 3-year Phase 2 program. LBNL and the GEO-SEQ project were active participants in this new phase with the JIP and GEO-SEQ tasks cooperating and complementing JIP funded activities. LBNL was a cost-matching project with the JIP in which the JIP funded ~$1,100,000.00 over three years ($367,000.00 per year) to augment the GEO-SEQ InSalah tasks described below.
- Use MMV techniques in this task was used to evaluate the injectivity and geomechanical response at the In Salah Gas Project in Algeria as well as the application of the Certification Framework (CF) for Risk Modeling. This task continued LBNLs work on application of the Certification Framework (CF) risk assessment approach to Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Phase III and other CO2 storage projects. In the CF, we used reservoir simulation, probabilities of intersection of the CO2 plume with conduits such as wells and faults, and modeled fluxes or concentrations into compartments as proxies for impact to calculate the leakage risk of CO2 (or brine). This task complemented our industry-funded research aimed at the development and expansion of the CF’s specialized models including those to consider economics and storage optimization.
Within these tasks, GEO-SEQ had led the development of downhole fluid and gas sampling by U-tube, downhole Continuous Active Source Seismic Monitoring (CASSM), and reservoir simulation capabilities including reactive geochemistry, multicomponent gas mixtures, and geomechanical coupling.
The GEO-SEQ project was eventually rolled up into LBNLs Consolidated Sequestration Research Project (CSRP).